What is a visual reference?
For CAT II approaches, visual reference means being able to see to land (i.e., being able to conduct a hand-flown landing). For CAT III approaches, visual references means being able to see to verify aircraft position.
What is adequate visual reference?
ADEQUATE VIS REF (Adequate Visual Refer- ence. ) — Runway markings or runway lighting that provides the pilot with adequate visual reference to continuously identify the takeoff surface and maintain directional control throughout the takeoff run.
What are IFR conditions?
The regulations define weather flight conditions for visual flight rules (VFR) and instrument flight rules (IFR) in terms of specific values for ceiling and visibility. IFR means a ceiling less than 1,000 feet AGL and/or visibility less than three miles. Low IFR (LIFR) is a sub-category of IFR.
What is the difference between CAT II and CAT III?
The main difference between CAT II / CAT III operations is that Category II provides sufficient visual reference to permit a manual landing at DH, whereas Category III does not provide sufficient visual references and requires an automatic landing system.
What are takeoff minimums?
Note: a quick reminder, standard takeoff minimums for one and two engine airplanes is 1-mile visibility and a 1/2 mile visibility for 3-4 engine airplanes. You have the right to decline a SID as a Part 91 pilot if you don’t want to do it.
Why do pilots say squawk?
Basically, SQUAWKs are the communication tool that allows a constant dialogue between pilots and air traffic controllers. When air traffic controllers check their radar screens, they will see a flight’s SQUAWK code and know that it will refer to the specific flight it was given to.
What is the minimum RVR for a visual approach?
The lowest authorized ILS minimums, with all required ground and airborne systems components operative, are: (a) Category I Decision Height ( DH ) 200 feet and Runway Visual Range ( RVR ) 2,400 feet (with touchdown zone and centerline lighting, RVR 1,800 feet); (b) Category II DH 100 feet and RVR 1,200 feet; (c) …
What does controlling RVR mean?
— Controlling RVR means the reported values of one or more RVR reporting locations (touchdown, mid-point and stop-end) used to determine whether operating minima are or are not met. Where RVR is used, the controlling RVR is the touchdown RVR, unless otherwise specified by State criteria.