What is a relativistic perspective?
Relativism, roughly put, is the view that truth and falsity, right and wrong, standards of reasoning, and procedures of justification are products of differing conventions and frameworks of assessment and that their authority is confined to the context giving rise to them.
Who formally created the utilitarian theory?
Though the first systematic account of utilitarianism was developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832), the core insight motivating the theory occurred much earlier. That insight is that morally appropriate behavior will not harm others, but instead increase happiness or ‘utility.
What is natural law by Thomas Aquinas?
Aquinas wrote most extensively about natural law. He stated, “the light of reason is placed by nature [and thus by God] in every man to guide him in his acts.” Therefore, human beings, alone among God’s creatures, use reason to lead their lives. This is natural law.
What are the 4 cardinal virtues Aristotle?
In order for one to be virtuous they must display prudence, temperance, courage, and justice; moreover, they have to display all four of them and not just one or two to be virtuous.
What is Aristotle’s virtue theory?
Most virtue ethics theories take their inspiration from Aristotle who declared that a virtuous person is someone who has ideal character traits. These traits derive from natural internal tendencies, but need to be nurtured; however, once established, they will become stable.
What is the difference between ethical relativism and utilitarianism?
Normative Ethical Relativism claims that each culture’s values, however different, are right for THAT culture. Utilitarians are interested in consequences, and look at consequences to judge whether an act was good or bad, right or wrong.
What differentiates the happiness of Aristotle from that of Aquinas?
Aristotle believes that happiness is found in this life; Aquinas believes happiness is found in the vision of the divine essence, thus both agree that happiness is the Chief Good. For Aristotle, the highest good is happiness. Thus, if happiness is the chief good, then all who desire the happy life desire happiness.
How one can acquire virtue?
How does a person develop virtues? Virtues are developed through learning and through practice. As the ancient philosopher Aristotle suggested, a person can improve his or her character by practicing self-discipline, while a good character can be corrupted by repeated self-indulgence.
How did Aristotle influence Thomas Aquinas?
Thomas Aquinas (c. 1225–74). One of Aristotle’s ideas that particularly influenced Thomas was that knowledge is not innate but is gained from the reports of the senses and from logical inference from self-evident truths. Thomas also adopted Aristotle’s conception of metaphysics as the science of being.
What did Aristotle believe?
He believed the Earth haD always existed & was in an almost eternal state. Aristotle also created a theory on how the Earth was created and how the universe is laid out. He believed the Earth had always existed and was in an almost eternal state.