What is sympathomimetic toxicity?
The sympathomimetic toxidrome is a combination of physical findings characteristic of overdose of certain classes of drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines.
What are the signs and symptoms of sympathomimetic toxicity?
The classic signs and symptoms (toxidrome) often seen with the sym- pathomimetic drugs include hyperactivity, mydriasis (dilated pupils), hypertension, tachycardia, and hyperthermia; some of these drugs also precipitate psychoses, hallucinations and seizures.
What does a sympathomimetic drug do?
Sympathomimetic drugs mimic or stimulate the adrenergic nervous system, and they can raise blood pressure to alarming heights, particularly in hypertensive patients.
How is sympathomimetic overdose treated?
For sympathomimetic agents ingested orally, one may consider activated charcoal as long as the patient is alert. Hypertension unresponsive to the benzodiazepines should be managed with a shorting antihypertensive like labetalol or nitroprusside. The main medication for symptomatic treatment is a benzodiazepine.
What are the side effects of sympathomimetics?
The adverse effects of sympathomimetics include:
- fine tremor, usually in the hands.
- nervous tension.
- peripheral vasodilation.
- sinus tachycardia.
- hypokalaemia after high doses – salbutamol.
- hypersensitivity, including paradoxical bronchospasm.
- impaired glucose tolerance in diabetics.
Are Sympathomimetics toxic?
Sympathomimetic toxicity is frequently associated with significant agitation, thus necessitating the use of physical restraints and chemical sedation. However, physically restrained patients with sympathomimetic-associated agitation or hyperthermia have an associated significant risk of sudden death.
What is the difference between sympathomimetic and sympatholytic drugs?
A drug that enhances adrenergic function is known as a sympathomimetic drug, whereas a drug that interrupts adrenergic function is a sympatholytic drug.
Is sympathomimetic a drug class?
Drug Classes and General Mechanisms of Action Many sympathomimetics are catecholamines or analogs of catecholamines that can be divided into two mechanistic classes: 1) alpha-adrenoceptor agonists (α-agonists), and 2) beta-adrenoceptor agonists (β-agonists).
How does a sympathomimetic drug work on the body?
Sympathomimetic drugs mimic or stimulate the adrenergic nervous system, and they can raise blood pressure to alarming heights, particularly in hypertensive patients. Many hypertensive patients are sensitive to all pressors, probably because they have hypertrophied vascular smooth muscles.
What are the clinical features of sympathomimetic toxicity?
Clinical features of sympathomimetic toxicity 1 Tachypnoea, increased minute volume 2 Irregular respiratory pattern More
How is serotonin syndrome related to sympathomimetic intoxication?
serotonin syndrome and sympathomimetic intoxication Many sympathomimetics increase serotonergic neurotransmission. Consequently, many of these agents have been implicated in causing serotonin syndrome (e.g., cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and especially MDMA). Whether or not the patient has “serotonin syndrome” is often debatable.
Is there such a thing as a sympathomimetic drug?
Without sounding stupid, it is difficult to define the term “sympathomimetic” without discussing how these drugs mimic the physiological effects of stimulating the sympathetic nervous system.
Why are Street sympathomimetics often labeled incorrectly?
The clinical presentation of these different agents is largely indistinguishable, especially initially. Even if the patient is able to provide a history of which agent was taken, street sympathomimetics are often labeled incorrectly (e.g., a tablet marketed as “MDMA” might actually contain various cathinones).